Metallic structures include nanostructured metal, nano-layer thin films, nanofibers and nanowires and nanoparticles. Common metals include silver, gold, nickel and aluminum.


The characteristics of the nanoparticles are dependent on the properties of the component metal. Common desirable properties include:

  • Reactivity
  • Conductivity
  • Light reflection
  • Light absorption
  • Antimicrobial (silver)
  • Active therapeutic ingredient/supplement (iron)
Manufacturing Methods: 
  • Condensation-based methods including:
    • Physical Vapor Synthesis (PVS)
    • Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)
    • Vacuum Evaporation on Running Liquids (VERL)
  • Milling
  • Precipitation